Just when you thought there were no more surprises!

The King of Spain should be remembered for his contribution to the American cause, without which we might have faltered!

Please go to page 309 in my book:

Rochambeau, Washington’s Ideal Lieutenant
A French General’s Role in the American Revolution



King Carlos III.

Carlos, King of Spain: Former king of Naples and Sicily and former duke of Parma and Piacenza; born Catholic into the House of Bourbon, the same family as King Louis XVI of France. He married Maria Amalia of Saxony, ascended to the throne of Spain in 1759, and reigned until his death in 1788.

King Carlos did not fully support American independence since he thought it might ignite an uprising in his own country, but he tolerated and supported covert aid beginning in 1776. After declaring war on Britain in 1779 he continued to aid the American cause in indirect ways while at the same time meeting Spain’s goals. At the request of Rochambeau and La Luzerne, De Grasse assembled the funds needed for the siege of Yorktown from Carlos’s subjects in Havana, Cuba.

Spain and its Generals on both sides of the Atlantic were most helpful in sending supplies to the insurgents in Massachusetts and in the Louisiana area as well. Spain has not received due credit for all it did to aid the UIS. I am making sure my readers are aware of their contribution.


Where are you on this August 14th?

I am raising my flag in thanks for the day of decision that happened at Hartsdale, NY, 233 years ago!

Let us never forget.

Original painting  of the Odell House by David R. Wagner, used as illustration in my book: Rochambeau, Washington's Ideal Lieutenant

Original painting of the Odell House by David R. Wagner, used as illustration in my book: Rochambeau, Washington’s Ideal Lieutenant


It was the big day of decision for Generals Washington and Rochambeau! We know where they were on August 14, 1781 – at Rochambeau’s headquarters in Hartsdale, NY.  The courier brought the long-awaited message that French Admiral de Grasse was indeed en route for the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, bringing hard cash, thousands of soldiers and marines, plus a fleet of 29 French ships!

All coming to help America win her independence!!

Therefore, our two fine generals, French and American, were free to decide their strategy.  All deterrents were swept away. Washington took the lead as was his duty and gave the appropriate command to his elder strategist, Rochambeau, that the combined Franco-American Armies don their marching boots and head out in the fierce August heat for Yorktown, Virginia.

A day such as this should be proclaimed in the history books as one of the most important in shared French/American history! The world was turning upside down for the British. Washington, with the help of Rochambeau and de Grasse were about to chart a new course toward freedom and liberty in America! En avant!